Ur-Facism/1984

Ur-Facism by Umberto Eco, is an article about how facism affects countries over time. Throughout the article, he explains his experience with facism in Italy but also goes into German facism. One of the main points he refers to is the Holocaust. He compares the two countries and how they were affected by facism in two completely different ways. One was viewed as overly violent, while the other wasn’t as harsh. As Eco continues to explain the effects of facism, he breaks down what it is and isn’t. Facism is demanding in the since that it causes you to give up individuality, but it also comes from individual frustration. Even though facism is mainly being dissected throughout the article, Eco goes into how it can be confused for totalitarianism while it also contradicts totalitarianism. He goes on to use a list to define facism and claims that facism isn’t the problem, but instead people who are ruled by it are.

This relates to dystopias and 1984 in the sense of control. Winston and his friends fear that their children could tell on them to Big Brother and are spies policing their every move. One point Eco made in the article is that facism expresses the need for everyone to want to be a hero for their country by policing other or doing something memorable for the country to remember them. Presenting patriotism can also be seen by trying to be the best citizen for your country. This also shown through social control which is seen by following unestablished rules out of fear that Big Brother can see your every move.
Eco expresses that facism takes away individuality and enforces order which is related to 1984 by almost everything in the book. Throughout 1984 resources aren’t at its fill capacity due to the ones in power. Julia explains that at one point she wants to wear a nice gown and makeup for Winston, as she was his mistress, but had to find to find a way to do it. Even though in 1984 they weren’t in uniforms, it still show control and almost unity within the sense that everyone has to wear similar clothes because their resources are not as great as they could be.

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