I original stated that dystopia represents what happens if a good intention goes wrong. However I now define dystopia as imaginary society  characterized by oppressive, dehumanizing, and often totalitarian conditions that provoke a sense of despair and hopelessness.

A dystopian society is marked by oppressive governance, dehumanization of its citizens, extensive surveillance and control,  limited individuality and expression, economic disparity, environmental decay, and fear and conformity. 

Hobbes’ description of the state of nature in chapter 13 of Leviathan, which presents a nightmare society characterized by poverty, chaos, and a lack of social order or progress, is consistent with the dystopian definition because it depicts a state of perpetual war in which peoples lives are unpleasant. 

Sigmund Freud’s views on happiness, particularly his concept of the pleasure principle and the role of unconscious desires, can be related to the definition of dystopia. In Freud’s theory, happiness is linked to the satisfaction of instinctual drives and the fulfillment of unconscious desires. However, in a dystopian society, the individual’s pursuit of happiness and fulfillment is often suppressed or manipulated by an oppressive government or social system. The constant surveillance, control, and restriction of personal freedoms in a dystopia prevent individuals from freely exploring their desires and finding genuine happiness. Instead, the dystopian society imposes a distorted version of happiness through propaganda, conformity, and artificial means, resulting in a superficial and controlled form of contentment that masks the underlying despair and lack of fulfillment experienced by its citizens. Freud’s perspective on happiness highlights the contrast between the true fulfillment of desires and the manipulated, repressive version of happiness in a dystopian setting.

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